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Land management: Restoration of degraded lands © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Land management options for mitigation fall in the following four categories: a) cropland management; b) grazing land management/pasture improvement; c) management of agricultural lands and d) restoration of degraded lands. This description focuses on the restoration of degraded lands. Within this description, a differentiation is made between a) management of organic and peaty soils and b) restoration of other degraded lands.

Liquefied Natural Gas in trucks and cars LNG semi-trailer

The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in transport is a suitable option to power, large long distance trucks in areas where gas is transported as LNG because there are indigenous gas supplies and no gas network. The use of LNG in passenger cars is far less viable because on average passenger cars stand idle more often, which would give rise to high evaporative losses. The use of LNG requires storage facilities for the cold (-162 0C) liquid natural gas at the roadside refueling stations and special fuelling equipment which can handle cryogenic temperatures.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in transport LPG powerd car (source: http://www.freefoto.com/preview/29-58-7?ffid=29-58-7)

Liquefied Petrol Gas (LPG) is a widely used alternative fuel. It has substantial reserves due to its dual origins from natural gas processing and crude oil refining. Liquefied Petrol Gas (LPG) powered passenger cars have about 10% lower tailpipe CO2 emission than comparable gasoline powered cars. When compared to a diesel car, there is no significant CO2 emission reduction per km driven; however, LPG powered vehicles do have substantially lower NOx emissions than diesel powered vehicles.

Livestock management © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Livestock are important sources of methane. The United States Environmental Protection Agency calculated that livestock, especially ruminants such as cattle and sheep, account for approximately one-third of global anthropogenic emissions of methane (US-EPA, 2006). The methane is produced primarily through the process of enteric fermentation and released through the process of eructation (Crutzen, 1995). In addition, N2O emissions are generated by livestock through secretion of nitrogen through the urine and faeces.

Livestock management: feed optimisation © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The principle of nutrition regulation technology to reduce methane emissions is: to optimise the concentrate to forage ratio in diet by controlling the crude fiber content of the diet or the fermentation process to reduce methane emission while ensuring normal production performance of ruminant animals without increasing production cost. This way, the rumen fermentation pattern or rumen microbial populations (such as methanogens, ciliates) and pH characteristics are altered to reduce methane emissions.

Livestock management: genetically modified rumen bacteria © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

To optimise the synthetic or metabolic pathway of micro-organisms related to methane synthesis by employing modern molecular biotechnology to obtain genetically modified microorganisms. Then the genetically modified micro-organisms are introduced back into the rumen ecosystem to establish a relatively stable microbiota that can replace or compete with the original pathway of methanogenesis, to reduce methane synthesis in the rumen.

Livestock management: straw ammoniation and silage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Straw ammoniation is a process by which low-value forage such as corn stalks, rice straw, wheat straw, and straw of other crops is ammoniated. Adding liquid ammonia, urea, or ammonium bicarbonate as ammonia sources result in the straw lignin being completely degraded, while the nutrients are enhanced. It is made more easily digestible by rumen microorganisms, which increases the digestibility of forage.

Low carbon air transport © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The focus of this article is on what developing country governments can do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from domestic aviation within their countries. Most governments have little control over the process of increasing efficiency in aviation. International air travel is not yet included in any inventory of greenhouse gases as it is not clear to whom responsibility should be directed.

Low carbon freight transport © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

This article covers the transport of any kind and quantity of goods, on land or water and over any distance (although it focuses on domestic freight). It includes, for example freight transported by road, rail or ship; facilities enabling freight to be switched from one mode to another; trucks and vans delivering to local warehouses and businesses; small boats taking rice or other farm produce to market; and goods tricycles selling textiles or food in an urban neighbourhood.

Low carbon water transport © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Water transport cannot be ignored. Whether carrying passengers or goods, it is an important component in the mix of transport modes in many countries, and an essential form of transport for communities – often low-income communities – that live around waterways and have little access to other modes. Though the efficiency of water transport varies greatly, on average it has the potential to emit less greenhouse gas per passenger or unit of freight than do private passenger and freight vehicles.

LPG and LNG for Household and Commercial Cooking © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

LNG consists mainly of methane, which has a boiling point of –164 0C and for liquefaction requires cryogenic insulated tanks at about atmospheric pressure. Recent practice has been to liquefy the gas that is normally flared in oil fields in remote areas, but it can also be made from landfill gas when purified. LNG is about 1/614th the volume of natural gas at standard temperature and pressure, making it much more cost-efficient to transport over long distances, especially where pipelines do not exist. Similar to LPG, this portability is a major asset.