ClimateTechWiki

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Recycling of Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

According to the EC (19 November, 2008) “waste means any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard.” Recycling materials and products – that are considered waste - is an ancient practice which shows that in times of resource scarcity (i.e. shortage of virgin materials) societies attach more economic and societal value to their own waste. This implies that throughout time the definition of waste can change as well. Generally speaking longer use or re-use of materials and products this is often mainly to cover a society’s needs.

Reducing travel needs © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

An important way to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that transport produces is to encourage and enable people to travel less. People travel less overall when they switch from private vehicles to public transport, walking or cycling, for reasons that will be explained. They travel less if their work is closer; if shops, health services and education are closer; and if family, friends and leisure activities are as well. They travel less if several purposes of travel can be covered in one trip, which is more likely if the places they need to visit are closer.

Regenerative braking in trains Electrostar c2c train using regenerative breaking in London (source: Bombardier)

Employing regenerative braking in trains can lead to substantial CO2 emission reductions, especially when applied to full stop service commuter trains (8 – 17%) and to very dense suburban network trains (~ 30%). Regenerative braking applied to freight trains can also lead to CO2 emission reductions, albeit considerably lower than for full stop service trains (~5%). When regenerative braking is employed, the current in the electric motors is reversed, slowing down the train.

Rice production technologies © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture (Figure 1). In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994. A variety of technologies are presented on ClimateTechWiki for reducing emissions from rice cultivation.

Rice: agricultural biotechnology © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The biotechnology approach for methane mitigation technology involves identification of rice cultivars which emit less methane. It also involves the tailoring of plants which translocate less photosynthate to the roots and more to reproductive parts. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: alternate wetting and drying © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines has developed a new mitigation technology for methane known as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) (IRRI, 2009). AWD is a watersaving and methane mitigation technology that lowland (paddy) rice farmers can use to reduce their water consumption in irrigated fields. Rice fields using this technology are alternately flooded and dried. The number of days of drying the soil in AWD can vary according to the type of soil and the cultivar from 1 day to more than 10 days.

Rice: chemical fertiliser amendment © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Emissions of GHGs are affected by the amounts and types of fertilisers applied, so judicious choice of fertiliser application rates and fertiliser types can reduce emissions. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: direct seeding © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Pre-germinated seeds or seedlings are directly planted in soil or broadcast in flooded field under this technology. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

See 'Rice production technologies' for an overview of all climate change mitigation technologies related to rice cultivation.

Rice: electron acceptors © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Addition of electron acceptors, such as ferrihydrite, to paddy fields can stimulate microbial populations that compete with and slow the activity of methanogens, thereby reducing emissions of methane. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: fertiliser, manure and straw management © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Fertiliser and manure management in rice fields are important methane mitigation technologies. The fertiliser management mitigation option includes changes in: fertiliser types; fertiliser nutrient ratios; the rates and timing of applications; and use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce methane emissions by affecting methanogenesis in rice fields. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: mid-season drainage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Mid-season drainage involves the removal of surface flood water from the rice crop for about seven days towards the end of tillering. The duration of the dry period must be long enough for rice plant to experience visible moisture stress. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: potassium fertiliser application © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Fertilisation with muriate of potash (MOP) can significantly reduce emissions of methane from flooded soils planted with rice. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Rice: reduced tillage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

For upland crops, reduced tillage technology for paddy rice involves planting or transplanting directly into the soil with minimal prior tillage in the residues of the preceding crop. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

Run of River Hydro for Large Scale Electricity Supply run of river image

Run-of-river hydro projects use the natural downward flow of rivers and micro turbine generators to capture the kinetic energy carried by water. Typically water is taken from the river at a high point and diverted to a channel, pipeline, or pressurised pipeline (or penstock). The technology is applied best where there is a considerably fast moving river with steady seasonal water. How much electrical energy can be generated by a hydroelectric turbine depends on the flow/quantity of water, and the height from which it has fallen (the head).