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Development of Renewable Heating and Cooling use in the Tertiary sector of Mediterranean countries

Solar Cooling and Hybrid Systems with Heating and Hot Water

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Solar cooling technologies transform solar radiation to provide space cooling and refrigeration services. Air conditioning in buildings has traditionally been provided by air conditioners using electrically driven vapour compression chillers. These are responsible not only for GHG emissions, but also use CFCs and HCFCs and related compounds as refrigerant fluids, which also contribute to climate change and are known to deplete the ozone layer.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[this information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of solar thermal energy projects in the CDM pipeline mainly apply the following methodologies:

ACM2 “Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources”
AMS- I.C. “Thermal energy production with or without electricity”
Further information on these metholodogies can be found here.

As of 1 February 2010, there are 10 solar thermal projects in the CDM pipeline - 5 areregistered and 5 are at the validation stage. [media:image:7]

Example CDM project:
Title: Federal Intertrade Pengyang Solar Cooker Project (CDM Ref. No. 2307)
The Federal Intertrade Pengyang Solar Cooker Project is located on the dry land of southern Ningxia in northwestern China. Implemented by Ningxia Federal Intertrade Co., the proposed project will install 17,000 solar cookers for the poor rural residents in mountainous areas with a rural population of 92,331 (or 20,341 households). The project will cover 83.6% of the households in the project region. The rating power of each solar cooker is 773.5 W and the total capacity of the proposed project is 13.1 MW. The proposed project will enable the rural residents to efficiently substitute solar energy for the fossil fuel (coal) used in daily cooking and water boiling - avoiding CO2 emission that would be generated by fossil fuel consumption.
Project investment: USD 900,000 million
Project CO2 reduction over a crediting period of 10 years: 357,230 tCO2e
Expected CER revenue (USD 10/CER): USD 3,572,300



Heat pumps for space heating or cooling and water heating

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Heat pumps deliver heating, cooling and hot water to buildings in the domestic, public and industrial sectors and can be located anywhere in the world as they utilise the constant temperature of the earth, the air temperature or water source. Heat pumps can also be reversed and function as space coolers. Most heat pumps operate on a vapour-compression cycle and are driven by an electric motor. Some heat pumps use the absorption principle, with gas or waste heat as the driving energy. This means that heat rather than mechanical energy is supplied to drive the cycle.




Identify the existing barriers for renewable energy development in Tunisian and Moroccan hotels and produce an integrated policy structure for their development, highlighting the potential for ESCO's project development.

Locations

Tunisia
36° 48' 10.08" N, 10° 10' 46.92" E
Morocco
34° 1' 12" N, 6° 49' 48" W
Main activity and output: 
  • Define the legislative and financial background regarding renewables and energy in general;
  • Develop a catalogue of state-of-the art technologies appropriate for the region;
  • Conduct technical and economical analysis of renewable energy applications for hotel heating and cooling uses;
  • Identify the main aspects (obligations and benefits) of renewable energy policies;
  • Develop guideline policy in hotel sector;
  • Complete detailed analysis for the implementation of a renewable energy installations following an ESCO model;
  • Information dissemination activities such as conferences, published articles and direct mailers.
Expected impact: 
  • Innovative solutions for renewable energy applications involving both heating and cooling needs;
  • Reduction of primary fossil fuel energy consumption and thus the environmental impact of such energy generation with a focus on the significant reduction in the summer electric load;
  • Adoption of appropriate policies and strategies for renewable energy development at different levels (local, regional, national);
  • Definition of positive financial conditions for the development of renewable projects, in particular regarding the implementation of projects with an ESCO model (based on Energy service contract);