An online clean technology database

Legislative framework for wind power in Brazil

Wind energy: offshore

Middelgrunden offshore wind farm (40 MW) observed in Øresund

Offshore wind energy shares many characteristics with the more familiar onshore wind energy.  Compared to onshore wind energy, which today is a commercial technology with global application, offshore wind is an earlier stage technology. However significant expansion is expected in the near future and initial full scale offshore wind farms have been built and are operational in Europe and China.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[this information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of off-shore wind farms can use the same CDM methodology as for large-scale wind projects, which is ACM 2 (Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources). As of April 2011, there is only one registered off-shore wind project under the CDM, the Shanghai Dong Hai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm Project.

CDM projects based on wind represent 17.3% of all CDM projects in the pipeline. Recent years have shown a tendency towards a more widening geographical dispersal of CDM wind projects, indicating that countries other than India and China observe the CDM as a tool to support wind projects. [media:image:7]




Wind energy: on-shore, large scale

Wind turbines in IT (source:http://www.flickr.com/photos/gorillaradio/2401771926

Besides conventional hydropower, onshore large-scale wind energy is presently the cheapest form of renewable energy. At locations with a good level of wind resource, it can be cost competitive with some forms of traditional/thermal power production. Global wind energy capacity has been growing very rapidly over the past decade. In 2009, newly installed capacity was more than 34GW (GWEC, 2010) representing more than 25% of total new generation capacity globally.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[this information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of large-scale wind projects in the CDM pipeline mainly apply the following CDM methdology:

ACM 2: "Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources”

CDM projects based on wind represent 17.3% of all CDM projects in the pipeline. Recent years have shown a tendency towards a more widening geographical dispersal of CDM wind projects, indicating that countries other than India and China observe the CDM as a tool to support wind projects. [media:image:6] Example CDM project

Title: “KL Rathi Steels 1.5 MW Wind Power Project at Kutch District” (CDM Ref. No. 2706)
M/s KL Rathi Steels is a closely held Public Limited company, engaged in making TOR steel bars and steel wires. The work of the company takes place in the village of Chapraula, on the outskirts of Ghaziabad, near Delhi. M/s KL Rathi Steels have installed one 1.5 MW wind turbine generator (WTG) of Suzlon make, in Abdasa, Kutch District, Gujarat.
Project investment: USD 2,200,000
Project CO2 reduction over a crediting period of 7 years: 27,100 tCO2e
Expected CER revenue (USD 10/CER): USD 271,000




Wind energy: small-scale

Small wind turbines on the isle of Eigg, Scotland

Smaller-scale wind turbines can be found in a wide range of applications including off-grid power; either directly by charging a storage battery or in combination with another form of generation to cover intermittent periods when there is little to no wind. In such instances small wind may be cost effective depending on the costs of alternate off-grid technologies and fuel prices; however the overall contribution of small wind to climate change mitigation will probably be limited due to the long payback periods required to offset the carbon used in their manufacture.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[this information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of small-scale wind projects under the CDM mainly apply the following CDM methdologies:

AMS-I.D.: Grid connected renewable electricity generation

AMS-I.A.: Electricity generation by the user

CDM projects based on wind represent 17.3% of all CDM projects in the pipeline. Recent years have shown a tendency towards a more widening geographical dispersal of CDM wind projects, indicating that countries other than India and China observe the CDM as a tool to support wind projects. [media:image:3] 




To develop a long term and stable legal framework for wind power in Brazil, seeking a wide spread of the technology, and creating the conditions for building a manufacturing, deployment and service industry in the country.

Location

Brazil
15° 46' 46.92" S, 47° 55' 46.92" W
Main activity and output: 
  • Prepare a comprehensive study on optimising the policy framework for on-grid renewables deployment in Brazil
  • Take into consideration  the successful planning and regulatory experience of the principal EU wind power markets as well as the US and China, and adapting it to Brazilian conditions
  • Hold a series of seminars to get local input and bring international experience from the industry and regulators to Brazil
  • Cooperate closely with the leading legislators in both houses of the Brazilian Congress  to build a political consensus on the way forward
  • facilitate passage of new legislation within the timeframe of the project, which meets government approval
Expected impact: 
  • Final adoption of legislation providing an effective, stable regulatory environment for wind power in Brazil.
  • Avoidance of the need to build thousands of megawatts of new thermal generating plant and avoid the addition of many tens of millions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere over the coming decade.
  • The study on optimising the policy framework becomes a template for similar ones in other countries.