An online clean technology database

National Action Plan for Rural Biomass Renewable Energy Development in China

Biomass combustion and co-firing for electricty and heat

Alholmens Kraft, Finland, the world's largest biomass-fired power plant

Combustion is the most common way of converting solid biomass fuels to energy. Worldwide, it already provides over 90% of the energy generated from biomass, a significant part of which in the form of traditional uses for cooking and heating. Biomass of different forms can also be used to produce power (and heat) in small-scale distributed generation facilities used for rural electrification, in industrial scale applications, as well as in larger scale electricity generation and district heating plants.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[This information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of biomass projects in the CDM pipeline apply a variety of different CDM methodologies due to a variety of different feedstock and sectors where biomass projects are applied. Methodologies include ACM6 “Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues”, ACM3 “Emissions reduction through partial substitution of fossil fuels with alternative fuels or less carbon intensive fuels in cement manufacture”, AMS-I.A.: Electricity generation by the user and AM36 “Fuel switch from fossil fuels to biomass residues in heat generation equipment”.

CDM projects based on biomass represent 13.6% of all CDM projects in the pipeline. Biomass projects have been the main driving force of CDM project development in many developing countries where agriculture is the main industry and agricultural wastes are abundant. Of the 277 registered projects, 168 are small-scale projects. [media:image:4] Example CDM project:

Title: “35 MW Bagasse Based Cogeneration Project” by Mumias Sugar Company Limited (MSCL) (CDM Ref. No. 1404)
Mumias Sugar is the leading sugar manufacturer in Kenya. It sells sugar through appointed distributors nationwide. The company has diversified into power production. The technology to be employed for the Mumias Cogeneration Project will be based on the conventional steam power cycle involving direct combustion of biomass (bagasse) in a boiler to raise steam, which is then expanded through a condensing extraction turbine to generate electricity. Some of the steam generated will be used in the sugar plant processes and equipment.
Project investment: USD 20'000'000
Project CO2 reduction over a crediting period of 10 years: 1'295'914 tCO2e
Expected CER revenue (USD 10/CER): USD 12'959'140



Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste for District Heat or Electricity

waste to energy

Municipal solid waste (MSW) refers to the stream of garbage collected through community sanitation services. Such waste can consist of a variety of materials, including both renewable energy sources (such as food, paper, and wood) and non-renewable energy sources (such as glass, plastics, and tires). Obviously, as several sources have shown, from an environmental perspective the most sustainable option for MSW is to reduce the amount of waste.




Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste for Large-Scale Electricity/Heat

© ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Thermal gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a chemical process that generates a gaseous, fuel-rich product. This product can then be combusted in a boiler, producing steam for power generation. Just as with combustion of MSW, thermal MSW gasification does not necessarily compete with recycling programmes, but should be considered complementary in any generically constructed MSW plan.




Methane Capture at Landfills for Electricity and Heat

© ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Under the anaerobic (oxygen free) conditions of landfill sites, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms, leading to the formation of landfill gas (LFG). LFG is a gaseous mixture which consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide, but also of a small amount of hydrogen and occasionally trace levels of hydrogen sulphide.




Methane Capture at Landfills for Electricity and Heat

© ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Under the anaerobic (oxygen free) conditions of landfill sites, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms, leading to the formation of landfill gas (LFG). LFG is a gaseous mixture which consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide, but also of a small amount of hydrogen and occasionally trace levels of hydrogen sulphide.




To develop a National Action Plan for rural biomass renewable energy in China with supporting documentation. The National Action Plan will provide detailed measures to enable China to achieve its biomass development target in mid-term and long-term set in the National Strategy and reduce GHG emission.

Location

China
39° 55' 44.04" N, 116° 23' 16.8" E
Main activity and output: 
  • Review the major experiences of biomass development in Europe
  • Evaluate current policy, institution, technology and financing mechanisms on rural biomass renewable energy in China
  • Identify the barriers and priorities for rural biomass development in China
  • Set detailed objectives and targets in the 11th Five-Year and 12th Five-Year Plan on the base of the National Strategy
  • Design detailed actions on capacity building, institutional building, financing mechanism, technical renovation, commercialization, international cooperation and awareness improvement, to achieve the targets
  • Design and select some pilot engineering projects;
  • Develop a framework of measures to ensure the smooth implementation of the Action Plan.
Expected impact: 
  • The National Action Plan will provide detailed measures to enable China to achieve its biomass development target in the medium and long-term as set in the National Strategy and achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions.
  • The action plan will produce measures to remove the barriers to rural biomass development.
  • The project will promote public acceptance of the national strategy and improve the public awareness on rural biomass energy.