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Utilisation of Forest Biomasa for Substitution of F

Biomass combustion and co-firing for electricty and heat

Alholmens Kraft, Finland, the world's largest biomass-fired power plant

Combustion is the most common way of converting solid biomass fuels to energy. Worldwide, it already provides over 90% of the energy generated from biomass, a significant part of which in the form of traditional uses for cooking and heating. Biomass of different forms can also be used to produce power (and heat) in small-scale distributed generation facilities used for rural electrification, in industrial scale applications, as well as in larger scale electricity generation and district heating plants.

Clean Development Mechanism market status: 

[This information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group]

Project developers of biomass projects in the CDM pipeline apply a variety of different CDM methodologies due to a variety of different feedstock and sectors where biomass projects are applied. Methodologies include ACM6 “Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues”, ACM3 “Emissions reduction through partial substitution of fossil fuels with alternative fuels or less carbon intensive fuels in cement manufacture”, AMS-I.A.: Electricity generation by the user and AM36 “Fuel switch from fossil fuels to biomass residues in heat generation equipment”.

CDM projects based on biomass represent 13.6% of all CDM projects in the pipeline. Biomass projects have been the main driving force of CDM project development in many developing countries where agriculture is the main industry and agricultural wastes are abundant. Of the 277 registered projects, 168 are small-scale projects. [media:image:4] Example CDM project:

Title: “35 MW Bagasse Based Cogeneration Project” by Mumias Sugar Company Limited (MSCL) (CDM Ref. No. 1404)
Mumias Sugar is the leading sugar manufacturer in Kenya. It sells sugar through appointed distributors nationwide. The company has diversified into power production. The technology to be employed for the Mumias Cogeneration Project will be based on the conventional steam power cycle involving direct combustion of biomass (bagasse) in a boiler to raise steam, which is then expanded through a condensing extraction turbine to generate electricity. Some of the steam generated will be used in the sugar plant processes and equipment.
Project investment: USD 20'000'000
Project CO2 reduction over a crediting period of 10 years: 1'295'914 tCO2e
Expected CER revenue (USD 10/CER): USD 12'959'140



To achieve economic, social, institutional and environmental benefits and improve energy security by providing transition from traditional fossil fuels to forest biomass in remote villages of the Volga River basin.

Location

Russia
55° 45' 7.92" N, 37° 36' 56.16" E
Main activity and output: 
  • Conduct a comprehensive analysis of the social, economic/energy and environmental situation in the remote villages of the Volga region;
  • Assess the energy generation potential of low-value timber and timber waste;
  • Plan forest restoration activities for efficient renewal of forest biomass;
  • Develop a utilisation strategy of forest biomass for heating in small villages: comparative analysis of utilisation of fossil fuels and forest biomass, logistics of biomass transportation, evaluation of desirable degree of processing of timber and timber waste, environmental analysis of technology of wood combustion;
  • Create an electronic database of Volga regional partners in the RE field;
  • Organise workshops in two to three districts of theVolga River basin and RoundTable in the State Duma (SD), the parliament of the Russian Federation.
Expected impact: 
  • Strategy generation for necessary changes and improved awareness among local authorities and decision makers;
  • Reduction in consumption of fossil fuels by 20-30 million tons of oil equivalent by uitilising biomass for heating;
  • The quantity of forest biomass necessary for sustainable heating instead of transported fossil fuel can be provided at the expense of local wood processing waste.
  • Reduction in budgetary costs for fuel purchase by 3-4 times;
  • Decreased heating costs by a factor of two or three;
  • Decreased pollutant emissions in the remote villages of the Volga region by approximately four to five times.

Increased sustainability of district heat  supply in the winter period