An online clean technology database

Improved Cook Stoves

Since about 1.5 billion people in the world use traditional stoves for cooking (and heating), efforts to improve the efficiency of cookstoves have been increasingly popular in the developing world. Improved stoves come in different forms and sizes. 

Introduction top

Among the various technologies introduced in the realm of efficient household heating and cooking methods, stoves are the most popular and widespread in both urban and rural communities. Especially in developing countries, stoves occupy a central place in the health, environmental, economic and social domains of life. By improving the efficiency of wood burning stoves, the amount of toxic smoke produced can be reduced and health risks to the family be minimized. In view of these and other concerns, a good cooking stove is defined as one that meets technical, scientific and safety standards, and has high combustion quality, technical efficiency, minimal smoke emission, ergonomics and structural stability. Most sources cite the fuel-efficiency of traditional stoves as five to ten percent (Barnes et al., 1994).

Since about 1.5 billion people in the world use traditional stoves for cooking (and heating), efforts to improve the efficiency of cookstoves have been increasingly popular in the developing world. Improved stoves come in different forms and sizes. Improved Cook Stoves (ICS) can be designed and built in various ways, depending on the local conditions. At their simplest, ICS provide an enclosure for the fire to reduce the loss of radiant heat and protect it against the wind. In addition, attention can be given to methods of controlling the upward flow of the combustion gases, so as to increase the transfer of heat to the cooking pot. Many of these stoves are made of mud or sand since both are almost free and readily available.

In the developing countries, energy required for cooking often constitutes the biggest share of the total national energy demand and is normally met mostly by biomass. Realisation that ICS can relieve pressure on biomass resources led to ICS programmes in most developing countries. A World Bank report cited 137 ICS projects in 41 developing countries initiated during 1981-1991 (Barnes et al., 1994). In spite of the on-going and past projects, an ICS programme still remains important in the context of the developing countries. It is estimated that about 2.4 billion people burn biomass for cooking and heating. About half of these people use traditional stoves (Warwick and Doig, 2004). It is known that pollutants emitted from cook stoves cause serious indoor air pollution and have a negative impact on health of people in rural areas, particularly women and children. It is estimated that indoor air pollution due to combustion of solid fuels causes about 1.6 million deaths annually (Warwick and Doig, 2004).

Although the most effective way to address indoor air pollution created by smoke would be to switch to cleaner gaseous and liquid fuels (such as ethanal/methanol or biogasification stoves), it is likely that for the vast majority of poor people, improved biomass-fired cook stoves will remain the most important option for many years to come. It is concluded that “[t]he improved biomass stove should be considered a new stepping stone between the traditional biomass stoves used by rural and urban poor families and the modern fuels and appliances mainly used by urban better-off households” (Barnes et al., 1994).

Feasibility of technology and operational necessities top

As an example of domestic applications in developing countries, China has established an exemplary programme to reduce indoor air pollution in rural areas by promoting clean cooking options through nearly total replacement of traditional biomass-fired stoves by ICS and biogas burning stoves. The use of networks for supplying producer gas for cooking has also been initiated, which increases the likelihood tht major ICS programmes and clean cooking fuels will be initiated in other developing countries. In developed countries, improved wood heaters will similarly replace traditional fireplaces (IAEE 2009). Also, use of biomass-fired district heating systems is expected to grow in these countries as a part of national strategies to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.

Status of the technology and its future market potential top

As far as Research and Development status, market penetration and social acceptability in Asia are concerned, ICS programmes have been initiated in probably all countries. The largest of these were undertaken in China, where more than 189 million stoves have been disseminated so far, and India, where over 35 million stoves were installed by March 2003 (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). Table 1 and Table 2 show the main features of selected Chinese and Indian ICS, respectively. The efficiency values of the Indian stoves are based on higher heating value of the biomass fuels while the reported efficiency values of the Chinese stoves appear to be based on lower heating value. This is one of the reasons for the significantly higher efficiency values for the Chinese stoves shown in Table 1 compared to the values for Indian stoves shown in Table 2.

illustration © climatetechwiki.org

Figure 1: Features of improved cook stoves in China

illustration © climatetechwiki.org

Figure 2: Features of improved cook stoves in China

Other countries where ICS programmes have introduced improved stoves in significant numbers are Kenya, Thailand and Sri Lanka. An interesting stove, called the Rocket Stove was developed at Aprovecho Research Center of USA in the early 1980s. It uses an elbow through which fuel is fed into a combustion chamber at the bottom of an internal chimney. The design of the stove incorporates some basic scientific principles to improve its performance, e.g., use of lightweight insulating material for insulating the combustion chamber of the stove in order to minimise heat loss from it and attain a high temperature inside to promote complete combustion, limiting the amount of fuel inside the combustion chamber, preheating of combustion air, using a metal skirt around the pot in order to improve contacting of the vertical surface of the pot with the rising flue gas, etc. The efficiency of a Rocket Stove with skirt has been reported by Aprovecho Research Center to be 36% (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). Plancha Stove, originally developed by PROLENA, Honduras, in 1995, drastically reduces indoor air pollution by almost totally enclosing the fire and sealing the flue gas passage. In this case the cooking pots are placed on a metal griddle which is heated by the hot combustion gas coming in direct contact with its bottom surface. Since the pots do not contact the flue gas, these remain free from soot (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). Nicaragua later worked with Aprovecho Research Center to develop an improved Plancha Stove known as the Ecostove by incorporating a rocket stove burner. The efficiency of the Ecostove is around 20%. In spite of relatively low efficiency compared with many other ICS and its rather high cost, the stove appears to be an interesting option for improving kitchen environment and reducing fuelwood consumption compared with traditional stoves (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). The Asian Institute of Technology has developed a natural gasifier-gas stove for institutional kitchens (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). A pot support that accommodates two or three pots is placed above a gas burner to get a two-pot or three pot stove. In tests with wood as well as sized sawdust briquettes, the stove could be operated continuously for several hours with no trace of smoke. The stove design has been disseminated in several Asian countries through national and regional workshops. Pakistan has invented the kitchen stove, which has 50% less fuel wood requirements and causes 70% reduction of gaseous emissions. According to a recent study, open-fire stoves consume approximately 10 kg of firewood per household and day, which means 9.15 ktonnes of firewood annually (Energy Globe, 2004). Due to the high demand for wood as fuel, the rate of theft was 600 trees for every 760 trees planted per acre every year – resulting in deforestation and environmental degradation. The new stove affectionately called ‘Nada’ is cost efficient and simply constructed. It is less of a health hazard to women, time efficient, causes less blackening of cooking utensils and kitchen walls. The stove uses wood and cow dung cake for heating. The technology of the stoves closely resembles the traditional stoves used by the women in the area, unlike in previous projects that were more technology oriented, not taking into account the local demands.

illustration © climatetechwiki.org

Figure 3: Fuel efficient stoves in Pakistan (Source: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy)

The ESCORT stove uses the same materials as the traditional stove and is constructed in the home-needy families, by local women who are trained as ‘Chulah Mechanics’ and local blacksmiths (Energy Globe, 2004). The result is a significant transformation of the lives, especially for the women. Not only the health risks associated with cooking on open fires are reduced (chimney pipe), but in addition two meals can be cooked at once and kept warm. Women have also found that they need less time for collecting fuel-wood and preparing food and therefore have more time to assist the family in income-generating activities. Women trained as ‘Chullah Mechanics’ are also able to earn additional income for themselves by constructing the stoves. Women are also trained to set up the stoves themselves and in the meantime about 7000 women in 24 villages have received such training. The simplicity of the stoves together with involvement of the community through training sessions and workshops resulted in an acceptance ratio of over 70% in the 54 villages where the stove has been introduced. Dependent on the necessary funding, ESCORT plans to extend the project area to 80 further villages. The average number of people per household in this target area is almost eight, with approximately 210 households per village. Between approximately 1995 and 2005, the Escort Foundation installed 11,578 stoves (Energy Globe, 2004). In Nepal, the National ICS Programme has disseminated about 125,000 ICS serving the same number of households in 33 mid-hill districts from its initiation in May 1999 to the end of June 2005. The combined effort of the national ICS Programme and other organisations led to a dissemination of 200,000 ICS in the country by the end of June 2005 (Centre for Rural Technology, 2005). ICS have been produced and commercialized to the largest extent in China and India, where governments have promoted their use, and in Kenya, where a large commercial market is developed. Over the past two decades, a variety of public programmes and successful private market developments have resulted in 220 million households currently using ICS. This number, however, is still less than half as large as the roughly 570 million households worldwide that depend on traditional biomass as their primary cooking fuel. China’s 180 million existing improved stoves now represent about 95% of such households. India’s 34 million ICS represent about 25% of such households (Martinot and Wallace, 2005). In Africa, research, dissemination, and commercialisation efforts over the past few decades have brought a range of improved charcoal and now wood-burning stoves into use (Martinot and Wallace, 2005). Many of these stove designs, as well as the programmes and policies that have supported their commercialisation, have been highly successful. There are now 5 million ICS in use in Africa. In Kenya, the Ceramic Jikko stove (KCJ) is found in more than half of all urban homes and roughly 16–20% of rural homes (Martinot and Wallace, 2005).

illustration © climatetechwiki.org

Figure 4: Ceramic Jiko Stove in Kenya (Source: Analogue Digital)

About one-third of African countries have programmes for improved biomass cook stoves, although there are few specific policies in place. Non-governmental organizations and small enterprises continue to promote and market stoves as well. Despite the technological development and technical availability of the ICS in many developing countries, as described above, still several barriers to a successful implementation of this technology exist in some regions in the world: • High initial cost; • Lack of financing mechanisms; • Lack of local availability of high performance devices; • Lack of performance assurance or product standard; • Lack of local expertise or know-how or skills; • Lack of co-ordination among government agencies; and • Subsidy for fossil fuel or electricity. Possible measure to overcome these barriers are: rural training programmes for the potters provided by (local) governments in the regions concerned, which could also create spin-off effects to other regions; establishment of proper stove performance standards; and the demonstration (including testing) of ICS before the product is distributed locally. The latter could reduce people’s reluctance to purchase these stoves because of their high initial investment. Finally, (local) governments could providing financial support for rural pottery training programmes and identify suitable incentives, community fund and soft loans for the widespread adoption of the technology.

Contribution of the technology to social development top

Substitution of kerosene will lead to less imported fuels which is economically beneficial for the country. Where the manufacturing and back-up services are local, there are jobs generated. For example, the ‘Superblu’ stove described above was developed in Malawi and generated lots of social benefits. In addition, there are many social benefits associated with the switch to ethanol from biomass or methanol. A major benefit is the improved health conditions delivered from cooking with a clean smokeless fuel. As mentioned above, smoke and other pollutants are known to be one of the biggest killers for the rural poor. Also drudgery is reduced and time saved for women and children in collecting firewood and this time can be used more productively. Health effects of carrying wood long distances are also avoided. Shack fires from kerosene stoves and lamps are high, e.g., 40,000 shack fires annually are reported in Malawi. Paraffin appliances are not well made or robust and tend to leak over time. They are also easily knocked over. A paraffin fire cannot be put out using water as paraffin is not soluble in water and water acts to spread the fire. Paraffin stoves are therefore considered to be more dangerous to the users compared to ethanol stoves. In all cases, the cost of running the stoves appears to be low compared to kerosene, wood or charcoal if these are paid for. However, again, hard figures are not available for each country. In developing countries, biomass to meet energy needs accounts for 90% of household energy consumption. As mentioned above, the number of people relying on biomass will increase from the current 2.5 billion people by 200 million by the year 2030. Avoidance of pollutant emissions from burning biomass in inefficient stoves with their accompanying high death toll, would be a major benefit in developing countries. The UN millennium project aims to half the number of households using traditional biomass and ethanol/methanol and biomass gasification stoves contribute here as they can replace wood or kerosene fired stoves. Some of these modern stoves are designed in-country, such as the Superblu stove from Malawi or the Indian NARI stove (Rajvanshi et al., 2004) and the Cooksafe stove from South Africa, while others are the result of co-operation and technology transfer.

illustration © climatetechwiki.org

Figure 5: NARI stove in India (Source: Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute)

The Cleancook stove and the Chinese biomass gasification stove are examples of the latter. In both cases, innovation and new manufacturing capability have been developed from an EU technology transfer. These technologies convey large health benefits and decreases fire risks and are thus important for developing countries. The pressure on forests to provide fuel for cooking, heating and hot water is leading to severe degradation of forest resources with accompanying loss of flora and fauna though deforestation by logging and agricultural activities are still the major cause of global loss. Using a carbon-neutral source such as ethanol and/or a more efficient combustion process means that forest degradation can be halted and reversed. The supply chain can also provide employment and new skills.

Contribution of the technology to economic development (including energy market support) top

The ethanol/ methanol stoves are commercially available and mature, reliable technology. As mentioned above, the ethanol is mainly derived from sugar production but it can also be derived from other plant sources. Methanol is derived from fossil fuel (i.e. natural gas). This gives an abundant supply of methanol and allows gas supplies to be distributed and used in an easy form. Methanol production costs are less than half those of ethanol (Stokes and Ebbeson, 2005). The price of the stoves was unavailable on many of the commercial websites visited but as many are made and marketed in developing countries the price would be expected to be affordable. According to the IEA (2006), an ethanol gel stove could cost between USD 2 and USD 20 and the fuel cost would be USD 0.30-0.70/litre. The ‘CookSafe’ stove can boil a litre of water in eleven minutes, and a litre of ethanol can last between eleven and thirteen hours of burn time. The NARI stove was estimated to cost Rs 800 to 1000 if mass produced. The Superblu stove from Malawi claims that it costs approximately 2.5 Malawi Kwacha an hour (around € 0.014) to cook on this stove while it costs around € 0.14 an hour with charcoal and MK15 (€ 0.12) an hour with paraffin. Thus, these stoves can be affordable to the poor. Substitution of kerosene will lead to less imported fuels which is economically beneficial for the country. Where the manufacturing and back-up services are local, there are jobs generated. For example, the ‘Superblu’ stove described above was developed in Malawi. In addition, there are many social benefits associated with the switch to ethanol from biomass or methanol. A major benefit is the improved health conditions delivered from cooking with a clean smokeless fuel. As mentioned above, smoke and other pollutants are known to be one of the biggest killers for the rural poor. Also drudgery is reduced and time saved for women and children in collecting firewood and this time can be used more productively. Health effects of carrying wood long distances are also avoided. Shack fires from kerosene stoves and lamps are high, e.g., 40,000 shack fires annually are reported in Malawi. Paraffin appliances are not well made or robust and tend to leak over time. They are also easily knocked over. A paraffin fire cannot be put out using water as paraffin is not soluble in water and water acts to spread the fire. Paraffin stoves are therefore considered to be more dangerous to the users compared to ethanol stoves. In all cases, the cost of running the stoves appears to be low compared to kerosene, wood or charcoal if these are paid for. However, again, hard figures are not available for each country. In developing countries, biomass to meet energy needs accounts for 90% of household energy consumption. As mentioned above, the number of people relying on biomass will increase from the current 2.5 billion people by 200 million by the year 2030. Avoidance of pollutant emissions from burning biomass in inefficient stoves with their accompanying high death toll, would be a major benefit in developing countries. The UN millennium project aims to half the number of households using traditional biomass and ethanol/methanol and biomass gasification stoves contribute here as they can replace wood or kerosene fired stoves. Some of these modern stoves are designed in-country, such as the Superblu stove from Malawi or the Indian NARI stove (Rajvanshi et al., 2004) and the Cooksafe stove from South Africa, while others are the result of co-operation and technology transfer. The Cleancook stove and the Chinese biomass gasification stove are examples of the latter. In both cases, innovation and new manufacturing capability have been developed from an EU technology transfer. These technologies convey large health benefits and decreases fire risks and are thus important for developing countries. The pressure on forests to provide fuel for cooking, heating and hot water is leading to severe degradation of forest resources with accompanying loss of flora and fauna though deforestation by logging and agricultural activities are still the major cause of global loss. Using a carbon-neutral source such as ethanol and/or a more efficient combustion process means that forest degradation can be halted and reversed. The supply chain can also provide employment and new skills.

Contribution of the technology to protection of the environment top

The GHG emissions from biomass burning is subject to some controversy as it is important to consider the full life cycle of the fuel and the materials used in the technology and the products of incomplete combustion. For most biomass technologies (and many other technologies) this data is not available. However, there is some work comparing wood burning stoves with LPG and kerosene stoves (Edwards et al., 2004) which indicates that the results depend on whether GHGs other than methane and CO2 are included in the analysis. For example, when considering CO2 and methane only, renewably harvested biomass emits less GHG than kerosene, LPG, and natural gas or coal gas. If a more comprehensive list of emissions associated with incomplete combustion of biomass is used, then the picture changes. The better quality fuels, which are more fully combusted and have less products of incomplete combustion, have less contribution to global warming than wheat, maize or wood fuel. At best 100% renewably harvested wood has a similar contribution to the better quality fuels. Gasified biomass in combination with renewable harvesting methods can achieve low GHG emissions. The emissions from conversion of biomass to ethanol would therefore have to be taken into account before a proper comparison can be made of the effect of these different stoves on GHG levels. Ethanol is usually derived as a by product of sugar production, biomass distillation or from sorghum or jatrophia and should therefore be carbon neutral. This means that there should be a significant reduction in CO2 emissions compared to an unsustainably harvested wood stove or fossil fuelled kerosene stove. The displacement of wood fuel means that unsustainable harvesting of wood is halted and tree cover has a chance to regenerate. This conserves biological diversity as well as increasing sinks for GHGs. For example, in Malawi 50,000 hectares of forest are lost every year to provide wood fuel and charcoal, according to ‘Marko’ the manufacturer of ‘Superblu stove’. Biogasification stoves are efficient, boiling 25 litres water for 1 kg wood chips with no pollutant emissions. These stoves use waste agricultural products so that they are normally carbon neutral and also reduce deforestation rates. With respect to emissions of non-GHG pollutants, Warwick and Doig (2004) show that the smoke and other pollutants from cooking on open fires is a major cause of disease and death in developing countries and especially for those in poverty. The level of particulates and products of incomplete combustion to which mainly women and children are exposed, leads to respiratory and eye disorders with a high incidence of death (1.6 million/year). Since ethanol/methanol and biomass gasification stoves technologies reduce such pollution, they provide large health benefits for developing countries. In China, Grimm et al. (2002) estimate that 130kg/capita/year of coal are used for heating and cooking. The potential for emission reductions in GHG and air pollutants from coal is very high. Not only does the coal result in SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates, and carbon emissions, but also has arsenic, lead, mercury and fluorine, as well as other poisonous pollutants. The problems of air pollution from coal burning in Beijing are well known and similar problems exist throughout China. Therefore, large benefits can be gained from reducing the use of coal in inefficient stoves as the acid rain problem in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s demonstrated with the death of forests and reductions in crops, as well as health effects caused by the air pollution from coal-fired power stations and local small inefficient stoves.

Climate top

GHG emissions from biomass burning is subject to some controversy as it is important to consider the full life cycle of the fuel and the materials used in the technology and the products of incomplete combustion. For most biomass technologies (and many other technologies) this data is not available. However, there is some work comparing wood burning stoves with LPG and kerosene stoves (Edwards et al., 2004) which indicates that the results depend on whether GHGs other than methane and CO2 are included in the analysis. For example, when considering CO2 and methane only, renewably harvested biomass emits less GHG than kerosene, LPG, and natural gas or coal gas. If a more comprehensive list of emissions associated with incomplete combustion of biomass is used, then the picture changes. The better quality fuels, which are more fully combusted and have less products of incomplete combustion, have less contribution to global warming than wheat, maize or wood fuel. At best 100% renewably harvested wood has a similar contribution to the better quality fuels.

Smith et al., (2000) note that significant greenhouse gas emissions are associated with domestic cookstoves. This notion is supported by Zhang et al. (2001).

Financial requirements and costs top

Several organisations have been involved in the financing and marketing of ICS. For instance, a project in Kenya supported by Winrock’s Shell Foundation and USAID has a strong market development aspect. Under the project, Winrock and partners are providing female entrepreneurs in the Ngong and Rongai slums with technical and financial support to scale up ICS production and stove liners (Winrock International, 2006). In India, all households targeted for ICS in the National Programme of Improved Cookstoves are eligible for receiving a subsidy on the purchase of a stove. The central government subsidy does not go directly to the user, but to the state nodal agencies to cover the stove material and building costs, creation of capacity and awareness and administrative costs. In the six states surveyed, the unit cost of a fixed-type mud improved stove varies from Rs 110 to 190 (€ 1.91 – 3.30), and the central subsidy accounts for 50% of the stove cost in most states (ESMAP and the World Bank, 2001). In some states, such as Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Gujarat and Karnataka, state governments (and district administrations) provide a subsidy on top of the central subsidy under various development schemes. This further reduces the beneficiary contribution. For example, in Maharashtra, most stove users pay Rs 110 (€ 1.91) for a mud improved stove, but beneficiaries belonging to the Scheduled Caste/Tribe and Other Backward Classes pay only Rs10-20 (€0.17 – 0.35) as they receive an additional state-level subsidy. In Haryana, users pay Rs 20 (€0.35) for an ICS. In Andhra Pradesh, one of the nodal agencies provides a state subsidy that reduces the beneficiary contribution to Rs 15 (€ 0.26) (ESMAP and the World Bank, 2001). Shell Foundation aims to achieve a significant long term reduction in the incidence of indoor air pollution at the global level, by deploying approaches which are market oriented and commercially viable. A high-level review of the selected geographies indicates that India, Uganda/Kenya and Brazil are the most commercially attractive markets to consider for future ICS programmes. The foundation has a target of selling 20 million stoves in five countries during the next five years, for which it has a budget of € 37 million (Shell Foundation, 2006). ICS are generally built in developing countries, often co-ordinated by experts and with support of international development or aid agencies and/or governmental agencies providing subsidies. An illustrative example of this is the Ecostove manufacturing plant located in Managua, Nicaragua, which currently has the capacity to manufacture around 500 stoves per month (Houck and Tiegs, 2001). It has been assisted by USAID, World Bank and UN grants. In order to keep costs low, local materials are utilised. The Ecostove is factory-built, whereas others, such as some Indian Chula models or Chinese ICS, are built on-site. In either case, the formula appears to be based on governmental or international subsidies, local construction and professional expertise (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). One of the best examples of the market penetration of ICS as a result of a commercialisation programme is the two-pothole Anagi stove in Sri Lanka (Bhattacharya and Salam, 2006). The commercialisation has passed through a number of phases since 1974, with growing results. The main elements in the process include: identifying potters; designing the stove with users and potters and train the latter to make stoves and install them, which also becomes an income generating activity; creating awareness by training stove promoters; developing financing schemes to enable potters to handle credits and savings; maintaining the quality of the stove produced and the consumer service; and involving grassroots organizations from the very beginning of the process. The organization Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) has invested in many clean energy technologies including manufacture of efficient cook stoves (REED, 2003).

Clean Development Mechanism market status top

[Part of this information is kindly provided by the UNEP Risoe Centre Carbon Markets Group.]

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows for the inclusion of improved cookstove projects, the emissions of which can be credited and sold. A key devlopment within the CDM that improves the viability of improved cook stove projects is the creation of the Programme of Activities (PoA). PoAs allow multiple CDM projects to be included under a policy or programmatic umbrella, in order to scale up energy efficiency and reduce transaction costs.

An example of a CDM project related to cookstoves is: Efficient Fuel Wood Stoves for Nigeria. This project uses the Energy Efficiency Measures in Thermal Applications of Non-Renewable Biomass methodology to calculate the emission reductions. Other relevant methodologies, depending on the project circumstances, are Thermal energy production with or without electricity.

As of March 2011, there were 19 improved cook stoves projects in the CDM pipeline, out of which 3 hade been registered.

References top

Barnes, D.F., Openshaw, K., Smith, K.R. and Plas, van der R., 1994. What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Cookstoves: a Comparative International Review of Stove Programs, Technical Paper Number 242, World Bank.

Bhattacharya, S.C. and Abdul Salam, P., 2006. A Review of Selected Biomass Energy Technologies: Gasification, Combustion, Carbonization and Densification, A publication of Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate (ARRPEEC).

Centre for Rural Technology, 2005. Improved Cook Stove (ICS) Development: A Case from Nepal, Nepal (CRT/N). Available at: http://www.inforse.dk/asia/pdf/Nepal_%20ICS.pdf

Edwards, R., Peabody, J.W., Sinton, J.E., Smith, K.R., Quan, G., Xiliang, Z., and Yaping, L., 2004. An assessment of programs to promote improved household stoves in China.

Energy Globe, 2004. The World Award for Sustainability, International Energy Globe Award 2004 Winners.

ESMAP and the World Bank, 2001. Indoor Air Pollution, Energy and Health for the poor, Issue No. 5.

Grimm, H.P., Helm, P., Grassi, G., Lutter, E., Fjaellstroem, T. and Dong, W., 2002. Fostering EU-China cooperation in the development of the biomass fuelled heating and cooking stove market in China, 12th European Conference on Biomass Energy, Industry and Climate Protection.

Houck, J.E. and Tiegs, P., 2001. A Global Opportunity, vol 21, no. 12, pp. 40-46.

IAEE, 2009. Clean cooking fuels and technologies. Available at: http://www.iaee.org/documents/newsletterarticles/408cooking.pdf

IEA, 2006. Light’s labours lost, OECD/IEA, Paris, France.

Martinot, E. and Wallace, W., 2005. Case Study: UNDP/ GEF Project for Commercialization of Renewable Energy in China. Available at: http://www.gefweb.org/China_RE_GEF.pdf

Rajvanshi, A.K., Patil, S.M. and Mendoca, B., 2004. Development of stove running on low ethanol concentration, Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), India.

REED, 2003. A Focus on Household Energy, Rural Energy Enterprise Development, The REED Report.

Shell Foundation, 2006. Breathing Space Program, HEH strategy review. Available at: http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/ethos/files/ethos2006/IHEHP/Shell%20Foundation%20Breathing%20Space%20Programme%20--%20Sharna%20Jarvis.ppt

Stokes, H. and Ebbeson, B., 2005. Project Gaia: Commercialising a new stove and new fuel in Africa, Boiling Point, No. 50, pp. 31-33.

Warwick, H. and Doig, A. 2004. Smoke: the Killer in the Kitchen, Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries, ITDG Publishing, London.

Winrock International, no date. Partnership for clean indoor air, Partner Profile. Available at: http://www.pciaonline.org/partnerdetails.cfm?id=2

Smith, KR, Uma, R & Kishore, VVN 2000b, ‘Greenhouse gases from small-scale combustion devices in developing countries’ United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

Zhang, J, Smith, KR, Ma, Y, Ye, S, Jiang, F, Qi, W, Liu, P, Khalil, MAK, Rasmussen, RA, & Thorneloe, SA 2000) ‘Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors’,  Atmospheric Environment , vol. 34, no. 26, pp. 4537-4549.